A medical procedure is considered a "surgical procedure" when it involves cutting the patient's tissue, or the repair and closure of an existing wound in order to achieve a medically desired outcome. It is usually performed in an operating room at a hospital or clinic that is specially prepared and sterile (free from microorganisms).
Surgery, sometimes called an operation,also involves the use of anesthesia to avoid pain from the incision and tissue manipulation.
In some cases a doctor may use local anesthesia to numb a small area of the body, and in other cases, the patient might be put under general anesthesia, which makes them entirely unconscious for the procedure.
There are many different types of surgery, and manyreasons for having a surgical procedure:
Emergency surgery – done promptly to save a person's life, limbs or functional capability
Exploratory surgery – to confirm a diagnosis
Elective surgery – done to correct non-life threatening conditions
Semi-elective surgery – necessary surgery that can be postponed
Reconstructive surgery – reconstruction of a damaged, mutilated or deformed area of the body
Cosmetic surgery – to improve the external appearance of the body
Transplant surgery – to replace a damaged organ with a functional one, usually from a donor
Today, surgery is used to treat many medical conditions and, depending on the procedure, can even be done in an office or clinic. Some surgeries are considered "minimally invasive" and have relatively mild effects on the body. Laser surgery, laparoscopic surgery and angioplasty are common, effective surgeries that use miniaturized instrument inserted into the body cavitythrough a small outside incision.
All surgeries are intended to help patients live life to their fullest. When performed by professionals in safe environment,surgery is safe option that can provide prolonged relief from illness or pain.
In cases where other conservative treatments such as physical therapy, ultrasound and medication may provide similar results, surgery is frequently used a last resort.